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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2012 Sep-Oct;27(5):1029-42.

Osteogenic potential of bone marrow stromal cells on smooth, roughened, and tricalcium phosphate-modified titanium alloy surfaces.

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Mineralised Tissue Group, Tissue Engineering and Reparative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff, United Kingdom.



This study investigated the influence of smooth, roughened, and tricalcium phosphate (TCP)-coated roughened titanium-aluminum-vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) surfaces on the osteogenic potential of rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs).


Machined smooth (MS), grit-blasted roughened (MT), and roughened surfaces coated with TCP were prepared from Ti-6Al-4V. Plastic surfaces were used as a control. Surface topography and chemical characteristics were determined. Cell attachment, morphology, proliferation, and temporal expression of mRNA and protein markers associated with bone healing were examined.


Roughness values were 0.09 ± 0.02 Μm, 2.71 ± 0.24 Μm, and 6.08 ± 0.62 Μm for MS, MT, and TCP, respectively. Cell attachment was similar on all surfaces. The cell expansion phase occurred during days 1 to 3 on MS surfaces and days 3 to 5 on MT and TCP surfaces. The earlier onset of differentiation on MS surfaces versus MT and TCP surfaces was evidenced by: high mRNA expression peak for Runx2 at day 5 on MS (day 7 on MT and TCP); higher mRNA expression for osteopontin, osteonectin, bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteocalcin, type 1 collagen, and alkaline phosphatase over days 5 to 12 on MS compared with MT and TCP; higher levels of bone matrix proteins on MS compared with MT, with only BSP detected on TCP; cell morphology consistent with descriptions of differentiating osteoblasts apparent at day 5 on MS and absent on MT. Compared to plastic surfaces, Ti-6Al-4V appeared to suppress mRNA for interleukin 1Β, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression and upregulate osteoprotegerin.


Cell expansion was delayed on roughened Ti-6Al-4V surfaces, impeding osteoblast differentiation and bone matrix synthesis. These results disagree with a number of published studies examining pure titanium. Ti-6Al-4V surfaces appear to assist in the resolution of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibit BMSC differentiation toward adipocytes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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