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Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2012 Dec;14(6):588-96. doi: 10.1007/s11883-012-0288-2.

Impact of gastrointestinal surgery on cardiometabolic risk.

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Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et Pneumologie de Québec and Université Laval, 2725 Chemin Ste-Foy, Quebec, QC G1V 4G5, Canada.


Bariatric surgery has gained acceptance as the only treatment with long-term efficacy for severe obesity. Recent publications emphasize the usefulness of bariatric surgery in the reduction of long-term cardiometabolic risk, cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality, and the management of uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (T2DM), an important cardiovascular risk factor in individuals with severe obesity. The present review article offers a brief overview of the literature published over the past several months relevant to cardiometabolic outcomes in bariatric surgery patients. A recent report from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study specifically reported a reduced incidence of cardiovascular events on long-term prospective follow-up after bariatric surgery. In addition, abundant studies have been recently published on gastric bypass surgery showing high T2DM remission rates as well as improved blood lipids and inflammatory markers after surgery. Sleeve gastrectomy is increasingly performed as a stand-alone operation. Recent reports on this surgery pertaining to cardiometabolic risk showed variable T2DM remission rates that may possibly be explained by age of the patients and duration of T2DM. Available data suggest a possible favorable impact of the surgery on CRP levels and improvements in the blood lipid profile. How sleeve gastrectomy compares to other surgical approaches will require further study. Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch has been reported to offer some of the best long-term weight loss for obese patients. Approximately 9 out of 10 patients treated with this surgical procedure show long-term remission rates of T2DM. Significant improvements in the cardiometabolic risk profile are also observed after BPD-DS; they are especially pronounced regarding dyslipidemia. In conclusion, bariatric procedures improve the cardiometabolic risk profile, a phenomenon that appears to be only partly explained by the magnitude of the weight loss. Significant variations are observed with respect to the type of surgery and patient characteristics. More research is clearly needed on the short and long-term cardiometabolic outcome of obesity surgeries.

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