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J Gen Virol. 2012 Dec;93(Pt 12):2529-45. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.046672-0. Epub 2012 Oct 10.

Vesicular stomatitis virus as a flexible platform for oncolytic virotherapy against cancer.

Author information

1
Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223, USA.

Abstract

Oncolytic virus (OV) therapy is an emerging anti-cancer approach that utilizes viruses to preferentially infect and kill cancer cells, while not harming healthy cells. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a prototypic non-segmented, negative-strand RNA virus with inherent OV qualities. Antiviral responses induced by type I interferon pathways are believed to be impaired in most cancer cells, making them more susceptible to VSV than normal cells. Several other factors make VSV a promising OV candidate for clinical use, including its well-studied biology, a small, easily manipulated genome, relative independence of a receptor or cell cycle, cytoplasmic replication without risk of host-cell transformation, and lack of pre-existing immunity in humans. Moreover, various VSV-based recombinant viruses have been engineered via reverse genetics to improve oncoselectivity, safety, oncotoxicity and stimulation of tumour-specific immunity. Alternative delivery methods are also being studied to minimize premature immune clearance of VSV. OV treatment as a monotherapy is being explored, although many studies have employed VSV in combination with radiotherapy, chemotherapy or other OVs. Preclinical studies with various cancers have demonstrated that VSV is a promising OV; as a result, a human clinical trial using VSV is currently in progress.

PMID:
23052398
PMCID:
PMC4091291
DOI:
10.1099/vir.0.046672-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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