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Circ Heart Fail. 2012 Nov;5(6):693-702. doi: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.112.968180. Epub 2012 Oct 9.

Risk of heart failure complication during hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction in a contemporary population: insights from the National Cardiovascular Data ACTION Registry.

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Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.



Patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) complicated by heart failure (HF) are subject to higher mortality during the index hospitalization. Early risk prediction and intervention may help prevent HF-related morbidity and mortality.


We examined 77 675 ST-elevation MI and 110 128 non-ST-elevation patients with MI without cardiogenic shock or HF at presentation treated at 609 hospitals in Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network Registry (ACTION) Registry-Get With The Guidelines between January 1, 2007, and March 31, 2011. Logistic regression identified patient characteristics associated with development of in-hospital HF. Overall, 3.8% of patients with MI developed in-hospital HF, which was associated with higher mortality in both ST-elevation MI and non-ST elevation MI. In multivariable logistic regression, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤30%, prior HF, diabetes mellitus, female sex, ST-elevation MI, and hypertension (all P<0.005) were independently associated with in-hospital HF. Patients who developed HF during non-ST-elevation MI were more likely to be medically managed without catheterization (30% versus 13% with HF, P<0.0001) or had longer delays to surgical or percutaneous revascularization. Patients with ST-elevation MI and HF were less likely to receive primary percutaneous coronary revascularization (84% versus 79% with HF, P<0.0001), and more likely to receive thrombolytic therapy (14% versus 11%; P=0.0001).


Patients with MI who develop HF during hospitalization have a higher risk clinical profile and greater mortality, but may be less likely to receive revascularization in a timely fashion. Targeting these highest risk patients may improve outcome post-MI.

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