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Cancer Manag Res. 2012;4:325-34. doi: 10.2147/CMAR.S33355. Epub 2012 Sep 17.

Monocyte galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine-specific C-type lectin receptor stimulant immunotherapy of an experimental glioma. Part II: combination with external radiation improves survival.

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Neurosurgery Research Laboratory, Barrow Neurological Institute, St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix.



A peptide mimetic of a ligand for the galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine-specific C-type lectin receptors (GCLR) exhibited monocyte-stimulating activity, but did not extend survival when applied alone against a syngeneic murine malignant glioma. In this study, the combined effect of GCLRP with radiation was investigated.


C57BL/6 mice underwent stereotactic intracranial implantation of GL261 glioma cells. Animals were grouped based on randomized tumor size by magnetic resonance imaging on day seven. One group that received cranial radiation (4 Gy on days seven and nine) only were compared with animals treated with radiation and GCLRP (4 Gy on days seven and nine combined with subcutaneous injection of 1 nmol/g on alternative days beginning on day seven). Magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess tumor growth and correlated with survival rate. Blood and brain tissues were analyzed with regard to tumor and contralateral hemisphere using fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, histology, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.


GCLRP activated peripheral monocytes and was associated with increased blood precursors of dendritic cells. Mean survival increased (P < 0.001) and tumor size was smaller (P < 0.02) in the GCLRP + radiation group compared to the radiation-only group. Accumulation of dendritic cells in both the tumoral hemisphere (P < 0.005) and contralateral tumor-free hemisphere (P < 0.01) was associated with treatment.


Specific populations of monocyte-derived brain cells develop critical relationships with malignant gliomas. The biological effect of GCLRP in combination with radiation may be more successful because of the damage incurred by tumor cells by radiation and the enhanced or preserved presentation of tumor cell antigens by GCLRP-activated immune cells. Monocyte-derived brain cells may be important targets for creating effective immunological modalities such as employing the receptor system described in this study.


C-type lectin receptors; brain tumor; glioblastoma; macrophages; microglia; mouse; peptide

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