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HPB Surg. 2012;2012:102825. doi: 10.1155/2012/102825. Epub 2012 Sep 19.

The underlying mechanisms: how hypothyroidism affects the formation of common bile duct stones-a review.

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Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Teiskontie 35, FIN-33521 Tampere, Finland.


For decades, one well-known risk factor for the development of gallbladder stones has been hypothyroidism. Recent studies have interestingly reported that the risk in particular for common bile duct (CBD) stones increases in clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism. There are multiple factors that may contribute to the formation and/or accumulation of CBD stones in hypothyroid patients, including decreased liver cholesterol metabolism, diminished bile secretion, and reduced sphincter of Oddi relaxation. This paper focuses on the mechanisms possibly underlying the association between hypothyroidism and CBD stones. The authors conclude that when treating patients with CBD stones or microlithiasis, clinicians should be aware of the possible hypothyroid background.

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