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Chronic Dis Inj Can. 2012 Sep;32(4):208-15.

Income disparities in life expectancy in the City of Toronto and Region of Peel, Ontario.

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1
Peel Public Health, Brampton, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

To understand the lack of a gradient in mortality by neighbourhood income in a previous study, we used individual-level data from the 1991-2001 Canadian census mortality follow-up study to examine income-related disparities in life expectancy and probability of survival to age 75 years in the City of Toronto and Region of Peel.

METHODS:

We calculated period life tables for each sex and income adequacy quintile, overall and separately for immigrants and non-immigrants.

RESULTS:

For all cohort members of both sexes, including both immigrants and non-immigrants, there was a clear gradient across the income quintiles, with higher life expectancy in each successively richer quintile. However, the disparities by income were much greater when the analysis was restricted to non-immigrants. The lesser gradient for immigrants appeared to reflect the higher proportion of recent immigrants in the lower income quintiles.

CONCLUSION:

These findings highlight the importance of using individual-level ascertainment of income whenever possible, and of including immigrant status and period of immigration in assessments of health outcomes, especially for areas with a high proportion of immigrants.

PMID:
23046803
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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