Send to

Choose Destination
Int J Cardiol. 2013 Sep 20;168(1):243-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.09.087. Epub 2012 Oct 2.

Weather, pollution, and acute myocardial infarction in Hong Kong and Taiwan.

Author information

Division of Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Primary Care, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.



Several previous studies examined the association between acute myocardial infarction (AMI) incidence and temperature and/or air pollution. Results of these studies have been inconsistent and few studies have been done in cities with sub-tropical or tropical climates.


Daily data on AMI hospitalizations, mean temperature and humidity, and pollutants, were collected for 2000-2009 for three warm-climate Asian cities. Poisson Generalized Additive Models were used to regress daily AMI counts on temperature, humidity, and pollutants while controlling for day of the week, long-term trends and seasonal effects. Smoothing splines allowing non-linear associations were used for temperature and humidity while pollutants were modeled as linear terms.


A 1°C drop below a threshold temperature of 24°C was significantly (p<.0001) associated with AMI hospitalization increases of 3.7% (average lag 0-13 temperature) in Hong Kong, 2.6% (average lag 0-15) in Taipei, and 4.0% (average lag 0-11) in Kaohsiung. No significant heat effects were observed. Among pollutants same day nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels were the strongest predictors in all three cities, with a 10mg/m(3) increase in NO2 being associated with a 1.1% rise in AMI hospitalization in Hong Kong, and a 10 ppb rise being associated with 4.4% and 2.6% rises in Taipei and Kaohsiung, respectively.


Cool temperatures and higher NO2 levels substantially raised AMI risk in these warm-climate cities and the effect sizes we observed were stronger than those found in previous studies. More attention should be paid to the health dangers of cold weather in warm-climate cities.


Acute myocardial infarction; Air pollution; Biometeorology; Temperature

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center