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Neuron. 2012 Oct 4;76(1):1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2012.09.010.

Neuromodulation of neuronal circuits: back to the future.

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1
Biology Department and Volen Center, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454, USA. marder@brandeis.edu

Abstract

All nervous systems are subject to neuromodulation. Neuromodulators can be delivered as local hormones, as cotransmitters in projection neurons, and through the general circulation. Because neuromodulators can transform the intrinsic firing properties of circuit neurons and alter effective synaptic strength, neuromodulatory substances reconfigure neuronal circuits, often massively altering their output. Thus, the anatomical connectome provides a minimal structure and the neuromodulatory environment constructs and specifies the functional circuits that give rise to behavior.

PMID:
23040802
PMCID:
PMC3482119
DOI:
10.1016/j.neuron.2012.09.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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