Send to

Choose Destination
Seizure. 2012 Dec;21(10):789-94. doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2012.09.006. Epub 2012 Oct 4.

Comparison of MRI features and surgical outcome among the subtypes of focal cortical dysplasia.

Author information

Department of Neurology, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.



Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is the most common pathological diagnosis in patients who have undergone surgical treatment for intractable neocortical epilepsy. However, presurgical identification of MRI abnormalities in FCD patients remains difficult, and there are no highly sensitive imaging parameters available that can reliably differentiate among FCD subtypes. The purpose of our study was to investigate the surgical outcome in FCD patients with identifiable MRI abnormalities and to evaluate the prognostic role of the various MRI features and the characteristics of FCD pathology.


We retrospectively recruited epilepsy patients who had undergone surgical treatment for refractory epilepsy with focal MRI abnormalities and the pathological diagnosis of FCD. We evaluated the surgical outcome according to the pathological subtypes, and studied the prognostic roles of various MRI features. We used recently proposed three-tiered FCD classification system which included FCD type III when FCD occurs in association with other potentially epileptogenic pathologies.


A total of 69 patients were included, and 68.1% of patients became seizure free. Patients with FCD type III had a lower chance for achieving seizure freedom (7/15) than in patients with isolated FCD (FCD types I and II) (40/54, p=0.044). Cortical thickness and blurring of gray-white matter junction were more common in isolated FCD than in FCD type III, but most MRI features failed to differentiate between FCD types I and II, and only the transmantle sign was specific for FCD type II. We failed to find a prognostic value of specific MRI abnormalities of prognostic value in terms of post-epilepsy surgery outcome in FCD patients.


Our study showed that patients with FCD III have poor surgical outcome. Typical MRI features of isolated FCD such as cortical thickness and blurring of gray-white matter junction were less common in FCD type III and only transmantle sign was helpful in differentiating between FCD types I and II.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center