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Diabet Med. 2013 Apr;30(4):478-83. doi: 10.1111/dme.12030.

High-polyphenol chocolate reduces endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress during acute transient hyperglycaemia in Type 2 diabetes: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

Author information

1
Department of Clinical Science, University of Chester, Chester, UK. d.mellor@chester.ac.uk

Abstract

AIMS:

To investigate the effects of high-polyphenol chocolate upon endothelial function and oxidative stress in Type 2 diabetes mellitus during acute transient hyperglycaemia induced following a 75-g oral glucose challenge.

METHODS:

Ten subjects with Type 2 diabetes underwent a double-blinded randomized controlled crossover study. A 75-g oral glucose load was used to induce hyperglycaemia, which was administered to participants 60 min after they had ingested either low (control) or high-polyphenol chocolate. Participants undertook testing at weekly intervals, following an initial cocoa-free period. Endothelial function was assessed by both functional [reactive hyperaemia peripheral artery tonometry (EndoPAT-2000) and serum markers (including intercellular adhesion molecule 1, P-selectin and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1]. Urinary 15-F2t-isoprostane adjusted for creatinine was used as an oxidative stress marker. Measurements were made at baseline and 2 h post-ingestion of the glucose load.

RESULTS:

Prior consumption of high-polyphenol chocolate before a glucose load improved endothelial function (1.7 ± 0.1 vs. 2.3 ± 0.1%, P = 0.01), whereas prior consumption of control chocolate resulted in a significant increase in intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (321.1 ± 7.6 vs. 373.6 ± 10.5 ng/ml, P = 0.04) and 15-F2t-isoprostane (116.8 ± 5.7 vs. 207.1 ± 5.7 mg/mol, P = 0.02). Analysis of percentage changes from baseline comparing control and high-polyphenol chocolate showed a significant improvement for high-polyphenol chocolate in both measures of endothelial function (P < 0.05) and for urinary 15-F2t-isoprostane (P = 0.04).

CONCLUSION:

High-polyphenol chocolate protected against acute hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in individuals with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

PMID:
23039340
DOI:
10.1111/dme.12030
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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