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Opt Express. 2012 Aug 27;20(18):20102-14. doi: 10.1364/OE.20.020102.

A complex-weighted, decision-aided, maximum-likelihood carrier phase and frequency-offset estimation algorithm for coherent optical detection.

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Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576, Singapore.


We present a symbol-by-symbol coherent optical receiver, which employs a novel, complex-weighted, decision-aided, maximum-likelihood (CW-DA-ML) carrier phase and frequency offset estimator. The CW-DA-ML carrier estimator uses a CW transversal filter to generate a carrier reference phasor, and the filter weights are automatically adapted on-line by linear regression on the observed signals. A complete modulo-R reduced frequency offset estimation (FOE) range of ± R/2 is achieved, independent of modulation format, where R is the symbol rate. Carrier phase and frequency tracking is achieved rapidly. The acquisition speed of frequency offset in quaternary phase-shift keying (4-PSK) signals is more than 5 times faster than that of differential FOE. A constant penalty of approximately 1 dB at bit-error rate of 10(-4) is demonstrated for all frequency offsets in 4-PSK signals with laser-linewidth-symbol-duration product of 8 × 10(-5).

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