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Opt Express. 2012 Aug 27;20(18):19978-89. doi: 10.1364/OE.20.019978.

Focussing over the edge: adaptive subsurface laser fabrication up to the sample face.

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Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PJ, UK.


Direct laser writing is widely used for fabrication of subsurface, three dimensional structures in transparent media. However, the accessible volume is limited by distortion of the focussed beam at the sample edge. We determine the aberrated focal intensity distribution for light focused close to the edge of the substrate. Aberrations are modelled by dividing the pupil into two regions, each corresponding to light passing through the top and side facets. Aberration correction is demonstrated experimentally using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator for femtosecond microfabrication in fused silica. This technique allows controlled subsurface fabrication right up to the edge of the substrate. This can benefit a wide range of applications using direct laser writing, including the manufacture of waveguides and photonic crystals.

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