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Pharmacotherapy. 2012 Oct;32(10):910-9. doi: 10.1002/j.1875-9114.2012.01123.

Psychological and physical impact of anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Touro University California College of Pharmacy, Vallejo, California 94592, USA. eric.ip@tu.edu

Abstract

STUDY OBJECTIVE:

To contrast the characteristics of two groups of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) users-those with versus those without AAS dependence.

DESIGN:

Subanalysis of data from the Anabolic 500, a cross-sectional survey.

PARTICIPANTS:

One hundred twelve male AAS-dependent users and 367 AAS-nondependent users who completed an online survey between February 19 and June 30, 2009.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:

Respondents were recruited from the Internet discussion boards of 38 fitness, bodybuilding, weightlifting, and steroid Web sites. The respondents provided online informed consent and completed the Anabolic 500, a 99-item Web-based survey. Self-reported data included demographics, exercise patterns, use of AAS and other performance-enhancing agents, adverse effects of AAS use, behavior consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for AAS dependence, history of illicit drug and alcohol use, history of sexual or physical abuse, and psychiatric conditions diagnosed according to the DSM-IV-TR. Behavior consistent with AAS dependence was identified in 23.4% of the survey participants. These AAS-dependent users were more excessive in their AAS use (e.g., higher doses, higher quantity of agents, longer duration of use), more likely to report a history of illicit heroin use in the last 12 months (5.4% vs 1.9%, p=0.049), and more likely to report a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder (16.1 vs 8.4%, p=0.020) or major depressive disorder (15.2% vs 7.4%, p=0.012) than AAS-nondependent users.

CONCLUSION:

Data from the Anabolic 500 survey showed that almost one quarter of AAS users were dependent on these drugs. These AAS-dependent users had a higher rate of heroin use as well as anxiety and major depressive disorders compared with AAS-nondependent users. These findings can help clinicians and researchers better understand and address the potential illicit drug use and psychiatric comorbidities that may be present among AAS-dependent users.

PMID:
23033230
DOI:
10.1002/j.1875-9114.2012.01123
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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