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J Prosthet Dent. 2012 Oct;108(4):259-67. doi: 10.1016/S0022-3913(12)60174-7.

Esthetic considerations related to bone and soft tissue maintenance and development around dental implants: report of the Committee on Research in Fixed Prosthodontics of the American Academy of Fixed Prosthodontics.

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University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 16059, USA.


In recent years the frequency of and esthetic demand for implant restorations in the esthetic zone has increased. Recent literature has revealed numerous consistent trends which may aid the clinician in achieving predictable esthetics. Maintaining generous facial bone by judicious placement as well as by using implants with diameters of less than 4 mm appears to be beneficial. Avoiding adjacent implants in the esthetic zone while maintaining an implant to tooth distance of between 2 mm and 4 mm seems to aid in bone and soft tissue maintenance. Abutment connections in which the abutment is narrower than the implant offer distinct advantages, most notably increased bone heights. Also, provisional restoration, especially early in treatment provides long-term esthetic benefits.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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