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PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e44796. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044796. Epub 2012 Sep 18.

Regulation of energy metabolism by the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ factors of Arcobacter butzleri.

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Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.


The extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ factors are fundamental for bacterial adaptation to distinct environments and for survival under different stress conditions. The emerging pathogen Arcobacter butzleri possesses seven putative pairs of σ/anti-σ factors belonging to the ECF family. Here, we report the identification of the genes regulated by five out of the seven A. butzleri ECF σ factors. Three of the ECF σ factors play an apparent role in transport, energy generation and the maintenance of redox balance. Several genes like the nap, sox and tct genes are regulated by more than one ECF σ factor, indicating that the A. butzleri ECF σ factors form a network of overlapping regulons. In contrast to other eubacteria, these A. butzleri ECF regulons appear to primarily regulate responses to changing environments in order to meet metabolic needs instead of an obvious role in stress adaptation.

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