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Phytother Res. 2013 Aug;27(8):1200-5. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4847. Epub 2012 Oct 2.

Anti-inflammatory effects of the Zingiber officinale roscoe constituent 12-dehydrogingerdione in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells.

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Inhalation Toxicology Center, Jeonbuk Department of Non-human Primate, Korea Institute of Toxicology, Jeonbuk, 580-185, Korea; College of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742, Korea.


Ginger has long been used worldwide as a spice, seasoning, and wine and is also used as a traditional medicine. There have been no previous studies of the potential beneficial effects of the ginger constituent 12-dehydrogingerdione (12-DHGD). We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of 12-DHGD on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. The cytotoxicity of 12-DHGD was measured using the MTT assay, and production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) and the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was measured by ELISA. Production of nitric oxide (NO) was measured using Griess reagent and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible NO (iNOS) enzymes was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Treatment of Raw 264.7 cells with 12-DHGD significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated production of NO (at 12-DHGD concentrations of 150 and 200 ng/ml), IL-6 (at 50, 100, 150, and 200 ng/ml), and PGE2 (at 200 ng/ml). Consistent with the effects on NO and PGE2 production, 12-DHGD treatment also inhibited the LPS-stimulated increase in iNOS and COX-2 mRNA levels. However, 12-DHGD did not affect production of IL-1β or TNF-α in response to LPS. 12-DHGD, a constituent of ginger, is a potent inhibitor of proinflammatory mediator production in Raw 264.7 macrophage cells.


12-dehydrogingerdione; Raw 264.7 cells; Zingiber officinale roscoe; anti-inflammatory; cytokines; ginger

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