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Carcinogenesis. 2012 Dec;33(12):2601-10. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgs300. Epub 2012 Oct 1.

Superoxide dismutase 3 is induced by antioxidants, inhibits oxidative DNA damage and is associated with inhibition of estrogen-induced breast cancer.

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Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 2464 Charlotte Street, Room 5251, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA.


Epidemiological data and studies in rodent models strongly support the role of estrogens in the development of breast cancers. Oxidative stress has been implicated in this carcinogenic process. We have recently demonstrated that antioxidants vitamin C or butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) severely inhibit 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced breast tumor development in female ACI rats. The objective of this study was to characterize the mechanism of antioxidant-mediated prevention of breast cancer. Female August Copenhagen Irish (ACI) rats were treated with E2, vitamin C, vitamin C + E2, BHA and BHA + E2 for up to 8 months. Superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) was suppressed in E2-exposed mammary tissues and in mammary tumors of rats treated with E2. This suppression was overcome by co-treatment of rats with E2 and vitamin C or BHA. 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels determined as a marker of oxidative DNA damage were higher in E2-exposed mammary tissues and in mammary tumors compared with age-matched controls. Vitamin C or BHA treatment significantly decreased E2-mediated increase in 8-OHdG levels in the mammary tissues and in MCF-10A cells. Increased DNA damage, colony and mammosphere formation, and migration in SOD3 knocked down MCF-10A cells, and nuclear translocation of SOD3 in vitamin C-treated mammary tissues and in MCF-10A cells suggest protective role of SOD3 against DNA damage and mammary carcinogenesis. Our studies further demonstrate that SOD3, but not SOD2 and SOD1, is induced by antioxidants and is regulated through NRF2. SOD3 may thus be an important gene in defense against oxidative stress and in the prevention of estrogen-mediated breast cancer.

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