Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2012;(214):67-88. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-30726-3_4.

What a difference an X or Y makes: sex chromosomes, gene dose, and epigenetics in sexual differentiation.

Author information

1
Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. arnold@ucla.edu

Abstract

A modern general theory of sex determination and sexual differentiation identifies the factors that cause sexual bias in gene networks, leading to sex differences in physiology and disease. The primary sex-biasing factors are those encoded on the sex chromosomes that are inherently different in the male and female zygotes. These factors, and downstream factors such as gonadal hormones, act directly on tissues to produce sex differences and antagonize each other to reduce sex differences. Recent studies of mouse models such as the four core genotypes have begun to distinguish between the direct effects of sex chromosome complement (XX vs. XY) and hormonal effects. Several lines of evidence implicate epigenetic processes in the control of sex differences, although a great deal of information is needed about sex differences in the epigenome.

PMID:
23027446
PMCID:
PMC4150872
DOI:
10.1007/978-3-642-30726-3_4
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Springer Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center