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J Appl Physiol (1985). 2012 Dec 15;113(12):1873-83. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00936.2012. Epub 2012 Sep 27.

Effects of endurance exercise training, metformin, and their combination on adipose tissue leptin and IL-10 secretion in OLETF rats.

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Department of 1Biomedical Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA.


Adipose tissue inflammation plays a role in cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic diseases associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The interactive effects of exercise training and metformin, two first-line T2DM treatments, on adipose tissue inflammation are not known. Using the hyperphagic, obese, insulin-resistant Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat model, we tested the hypothesis that treadmill training, metformin, or a combination of these reduces the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines from adipose tissue. Compared with Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) control rats (L-Sed), sedentary OLETF (O-Sed) animals secreted significantly greater amounts of leptin from retroperitoneal adipose tissue. Conversely, secretion of interleukin (IL)-10 by O-Sed adipose tissue was lower than that in L-Sed animals. Examination of leptin and IL-10 secretion from adipose tissue in OLETF groups treated with endurance exercise training (O-EndEx), metformin treatment (O-Met), and a combination of these (O-E+M) from 20 to 32 wk of age indicated that 1) leptin secretion from adipose tissue was reduced in O-Met and O-E+M, but not O-EndEx animals; 2) adipose tissue IL-10 secretion was increased in O-EndEx and O-E+M but not in O-Met animals; and 3) only the combined treatment (O-E+M) displayed both a reduction in leptin secretion and an increase in IL-10 secretion. Leptin and IL-10 concentrations in adipose tissue-conditioned buffers were correlated with their plasma concentrations, adipocyte diameters, and total adiposity. Overall, this study indicates that exercise training and metformin have additive influences on adipose tissue secretion and plasma concentrations of leptin and IL-10.

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