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Stem Cells Dev. 2013 Mar 15;22(6):951-63. doi: 10.1089/scd.2012.0393. Epub 2012 Nov 28.

Growth requirements and chromosomal instability of induced pluripotent stem cells generated from adult canine fibroblasts.

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Genomics Program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA.


In mice and humans, it has been shown that embryonic and adult fibroblasts can be reprogrammed into pluripotency by introducing 4 transcription factors, Oct3/4, Klf4, Sox2, and c-Myc (OKSM). Here, we report the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from adult canine fibroblasts by retroviral OKSM transduction. The isolated canine iPSCs (ciPSCs) were expanded in 3 different culture media [fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), or FGF2 plus LIF]. Cells cultured in both FGF2 and LIF expressed pluripotency markers [POU5F1 (OCT4), SOX2, NANOG, and LIN28] and embryonic stem cell (ESC)-specific genes (PODXL, DPPA5, FGF5, REX1, and LAMP1) and showed strong levels of alkaline phosphatase expression. In vitro differentiation by formation of embryoid bodies and by directed differentiation generated cell derivatives of all 3 germ layers as confirmed by mRNA and protein expression. In vivo, the ciPSCs created solid tumors, which failed to reach epithelial structure formation, but expressed markers for all 3 germ layers. Array comparative genomic hybridization and chromosomal fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses revealed that while retroviral transduction per se did not result in significant DNA copy number imbalance, there was evidence for the emergence of low-level aneuploidy during prolonged culture or tumor formation. In summary, we were able to derive ciPSCs from adult fibroblasts by using 4 transcription factors. The isolated iPSCs have similar characteristics to ESCs from other species, but the exact cellular mechanisms behind their unique co-dependency on both FGF2 and LIF are still unknown.

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