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Sports Health. 2012 Jan;4(1):17-24.

Clinical Outcomes and Return-to-Sports Participation of 50 Soccer Players After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Through a Sport-Specific Rehabilitation Protocol.

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Education Research Department, Isokinetic Medical Group, Bologna, Italy.



Rehabilitation of soccer players after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is usually performed without sport-specific guidelines, and the final phases are often left to the team coaches. The possibility of changing this approach has not yet been investigated.


Case series.


A specific rehabilitation protocol for soccer players, with direct control of the last on-field rehabilitation phases, may lead to complete functional recovery.


Fifty competitive soccer players who followed a sport-specific rehabilitation protocol for soccer were evaluated during the recovery period until their return to competition. The assessment of the functional outcomes was performed using the Knee Outcome Survey-Sports Activity Scale and isokinetic and aerobic fitness tests.


The average start of on-field rehabilitation was 90 ± 26 days after surgery; the average time to return to the competitions was 185 ± 52 days. The improvement in the Knee Outcome Survey-Sports Activity Scale during on-field rehabilitation was significant (P < 0.01; from 79 ± 15% to 96 ± 7%). The isokinetic and aerobic fitness tests showed a significant improvement of muscle strength (knee extensors, +55%, P < 0.01; knee flexors, +86%, P < 0.01) and aerobic threshold (+23%, P < 0.01) from the beginning to the end of on-field rehabilitation.


Adding on-field rehabilitation to the traditional protocols after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction may safely lead to complete functional recovery in soccer players.


Anterior Cruciate Ligament reconstruction; clinical outcomes; on-field rehabilitation; return to sport

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