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Front Syst Neurosci. 2012 Sep 24;6:68. eCollection 2012.

Evaluation of pattern recognition and feature extraction methods in ADHD prediction.

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Center of Mathematics, Computation and Cognition, Universidade Federal do ABC Santo Andre, Brazil ; Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Neurociências Clínicas, Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal de São Paulo São Paulo, Brazil ; Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatria do Desenvolvimento São Paulo, Brazil.


Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, being one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in childhood. The neural substrates associated with this condition, both from structural and functional perspectives, are not yet well established. Recent studies have highlighted the relevance of neuroimaging not only to provide a more solid understanding about the disorder but also for possible clinical support. The ADHD-200 Consortium organized the ADHD-200 global competition making publicly available, hundreds of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional MRI (fMRI) datasets of both ADHD patients and typically developing (TD) controls for research use. In the current study, we evaluate the predictive power of a set of three different feature extraction methods and 10 different pattern recognition methods. The features tested were regional homogeneity (ReHo), amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF), and independent components analysis maps (resting state networks; RSN). Our findings suggest that the combination ALFF+ReHo maps contain relevant information to discriminate ADHD patients from TD controls, but with limited accuracy. All classifiers provided almost the same performance in this case. In addition, the combination ALFF+ReHo+RSN was relevant in combined vs. inattentive ADHD classification, achieving a score accuracy of 67%. In this latter case, the performances of the classifiers were not equivalent and L2-regularized logistic regression (both in primal and dual space) provided the most accurate predictions. The analysis of brain regions containing most discriminative information suggested that in both classifications (ADHD vs. TD controls and combined vs. inattentive), the relevant information is not confined only to a small set of regions but it is spatially distributed across the whole brain.


ADHD; SVM; classification; diagnosis; features; machine learning; prediction

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