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Curr Urol Rep. 2012 Dec;13(6):474-81. doi: 10.1007/s11934-012-0283-8.

Office evaluation of male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms.

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Department of Urology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, 02114, USA.


Lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH) are one of the most common urologic disorders in men. Accurate history-taking and focused physical examination allows us to diagnose the majority of cases. A better understanding of risk factors helps us tailor our treatment and predict outcomes more accurately. Population studies are crucial in our understanding of LUTS/BPH natural history. Temporary prostatic urethral stents that are used for the management of urinary retention may also be used for evaluation of patients with detrusor hypo-contractility. The use of ultrasound to measure intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP) and the Doppler study for prostate capsular artery resistive index are promising. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) examines the tissue oxygenation that may be affected by bladder outlet obstruction. The mathematical algorithm needs some fine-tuning, and its reproducibility is debatable. Serum and urinary biomarkers may help us to diagnose the disorder, and more effectively monitor patients' response to therapy. Among all, IPP is clinically more applicable at this time.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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