Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2014 May;21(5):608-17. doi: 10.1177/2047487312462823. Epub 2012 Sep 25.

Effect of improved fitness beyond weight loss on cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes in the Look AHEAD study.

Author information

1
The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Because lifestyle-induced improvements in cardiovascular risk factors vary substantially across individuals with type 2 diabetes, we investigated the extent to which increases in fitness explain cardiovascular risk factor improvements independent of weight loss in a lifestyle intervention.

METHODS:

We studied 1-year changes in Look AHEAD, a randomized trial comparing an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) to a diabetes support and education (DSE) control group in adults with type 2 diabetes. Assessments included weight, fitness, blood pressure (BP), glucose, HbA1c, and lipids. We evaluated the effects of changes in weight and fitness on changes in cardiovascular risk factors by study arm, using R (2) from multiple linear regression.

RESULTS:

Analyses included participants with fitness data at baseline and 1-year (n = 4408; 41% male, 36% non-white; mean age 58.7 ± 6.8 years). Weight change alone improved R (2) for explaining changes in risk factors up to 8.2% in ILI and 1.7% in DSE. Fitness change alone improved R (2) up to 3.9% in ILI and 0.8% in DSE. After adjusting for weight change, fitness was independently associated (p < 0.05) with improvements in R (2) for glucose (+0.7%), HbA1c (+1.1%), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (+0.4%), and triglycerides (+0.2%) in ILI and diastolic BP (+0.3%), glucose (+0.3%), HbA1c (+0.4%), and triglycerides (+0.1%) in DSE. Taken together, weight and fitness changes explained from 0.1-9.3% of the variability in cardiovascular risk factor changes.

CONCLUSION:

Increased fitness explained statistically significant but small improvements in several cardiovascular risk factors beyond weight loss. Further research identifying other factors that explain cardiovascular risk factor change is needed.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00017953.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiovascular risk factor; fitness; lifestyle intervention; obesity

PMID:
23012688
PMCID:
PMC3812302
DOI:
10.1177/2047487312462823
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances, Secondary source ID, Grant support

Publication types

MeSH terms

Substances

Secondary source ID

Grant support

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Atypon Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center