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Viruses. 2012 Aug;4(8):1212-34. doi: 10.3390/v4081212. Epub 2012 Aug 7.

Persistence versus reversion of 3TC resistance in HIV-1 determine the rate of emergence of NVP resistance.

Author information

1
Center for AIDS Research, Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Barbara.Rath@gmail.com

Abstract

When HIV-1 is exposed to lamivudine (3TC) at inhibitory concentrations, resistant variants carrying the reverse transcriptase (RT) substitution M184V emerge rapidly. This substitution confers high-level 3TC resistance and increased RT fidelity. We established a novel in vitro system to study the effect of starting nevirapine (NVP) in 3TC-resistant/NNRTI-naïve clinical isolates, and the impact of maintaining versus dropping 3TC pressure in this setting. Because M184V mutant HIV-1 seems hypersusceptible to adefovir (ADV), we also tested the effect of ADV pressure on the same isolates. We draw four conclusions from our experiments simulating combination therapy in vitro. (1) The presence of low-dose (1 μM) 3TC prevented reversal to wild-type from an M184V mutant background. (2) Adding low-dose 3TC in the presence of NVP delayed the selection of NVP-associated mutations. (3) The presence of ADV, in addition to NVP, led to more rapid reversal to wild-type at position 184 than NVP alone. (4) ADV plus NVP selected for greater numbers of mutations than NVP alone. Inference about the "selection of mutation" is based on two statistical models, one at the viral level, more telling, and the other at the level of predominance of mutation within a population. Multidrug pressure experiments lend understanding to mechanisms of HIV resistance as they bear upon new treatment strategies.

KEYWORDS:

HIV-1; adefovir; lamivudine; nevirapine; resistance; selection; serial passage.

PMID:
23012621
PMCID:
PMC3446758
DOI:
10.3390/v4081212
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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