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Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2013 Jan;28(1):37-44. doi: 10.1007/s12928-012-0134-z. Epub 2012 Sep 26.

Initial results of carotid artery stenting in Japan.

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Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokai University Hospital, 143 Shimokasuya Isehara, Kanagawa, Japan.


Carotid artery stenting (CAS) was approved by the government and reimbursement was started in 2008 in Japan, probably the last country in the world. CASCARD is a retrospective registry study performed by cardiologists to assess initial results of CAS in Japan. CAS was indicated for patients with at least one high risk factor for carotid endarterectomy and with >50 % stenosis in symptomatic or >80 % stenosis in asymptomatic patients. Primary endpoint was major adverse events (MAE) including death, myocardial infarction and any stroke at 30 days. Between April 2008 and March 2010, a total of 704 cases were enrolled from 55 centers. The study population with an average age of 74 ± 8 years included 62 % asymptomatic patients, with 23 % of cases with contralateral carotid artery occlusion or significant stenoses. Angioguard filter wire was exclusively used as a primary protection device and successfully passed the lesion in 701 cases (99.6 %). Precise stent was implanted successfully in all cases. MAE at 30 days was 3.7:0.3 % death, 0 % myocardial infarction, and 3.4 % stroke (0.4 % major ipsilateral stroke). Death or any stroke rate at 30 days was 2.7 % in asymptomatic and 5.5 % in symptomatic patients. The CASCARD study showed that the initial results of CAS in Japan are acceptable for both symptomatic and asymptomatic cases.

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