Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Int J Nurs Stud. 2013 Jan;50(1):90-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2012.09.001. Epub 2012 Sep 23.

Development and preliminary testing of a brief screening measure of healthy lifestyle for diabetes patients.

Author information

Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC.



Improving diabetes control is a critical issue world-wide, because mortality rates and costs are increasing dramatically. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle is positively associated with diabetes control. However, the availability of practical screening tools suitable for determining and modifying healthy or unhealthy lifestyle choices is limited. The main aim of this study was to determine the appropriateness of the type 2 diabetes and health promotion scale (T2DHPS) for use in patients with type 2 diabetes.


This study examined the Cronbach's alpha, content validity, construct and concurrent validity of the Chinese language version of the T2DHPS for assessing lifestyle and disease control among patients with type 2 diabetes. The dimensions of the T2DHPS were generated from the Chinese version of adult health promotion and interviews with experts, and were corroborated by the literature. A total of 323 patients previously diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were recruited. A cross-sectional, descriptive design questionnaire was developed and tested at diabetes outpatient departments in three teaching hospitals between August 2010 and June 2011. Construct validity was established using factor analysis. The total and subscale scores of the T2DHPS were correlated with biomarkers of diabetes control for concurrent validity.


Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) and Bartlett's sphericity tests showed that the sample met the criteria required for factor analysis. A 28-item Likert-type scale of the T2DHPS was established, and explained 56.7% of the total variance. The simplified version of the T2DHPS was made up of six dimensions of behavior: physical activity, risk reduction, stress-management, enjoy life, health responsibility and a healthy diet. The reliability coefficient for the total scale was 0.89, and alpha coefficients for the subscales ranged from 0.63 to 0.86. Concurrent validity indicated that the T2DHPS is significantly positively associated with diabetes control.


T2DHPS was shown to be a reliable and valid tool for assessing patients with type 2 diabetes, and can possibly predict diabetic control. This scale appears to be a useful screening tool for type 2 diabetic people in primary health care settings, to promote health status through modification of an unhealthy lifestyle.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center