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Pediatrics. 2012 Oct;130(4):e794-803. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-3886. Epub 2012 Sep 24.

Antibiotic exposure and IBD development among children: a population-based cohort study.

Author information

1
Division of Infectious Diseases, Seattle Children's Hospital, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98105, USA. matthew.kronman@seattlechildrens.org

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine whether childhood antianaerobic antibiotic exposure is associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

METHODS:

This retrospective cohort study employed data from 464 UK ambulatory practices participating in The Health Improvement Network. All children with ≥ 2 years of follow-up from 1994 to 2009 were followed between practice enrollment and IBD development, practice deregistration, 19 years of age, or death; those with previous IBD were excluded. All antibiotic prescriptions were captured. Antianaerobic antibiotic agents were defined as penicillin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, tetracyclines, clindamycin, metronidazole, cefoxitin, carbapenems, and oral vancomycin.

RESULTS:

A total of 1072426 subjects contributed 6.6 million person-years of follow-up; 748 developed IBD. IBD incidence rates among antianaerobic antibiotic unexposed and exposed subjects were 0.83 and 1.52/10000 person-years, respectively, for an 84% relative risk increase. Exposure throughout childhood was associated with developing IBD, but this relationship decreased with increasing age at exposure. Exposure before 1 year of age had an adjusted hazard ratio of 5.51 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.66-18.28) but decreased to 2.62 (95% CI: 1.61-4.25) and 1.57 (95% CI: 1.35-1.84) by 5 and 15 years, respectively. Each antibiotic course increased the IBD hazard by 6% (4%-8%). A dose-response effect existed, with receipt of >2 antibiotic courses more highly associated with IBD development than receipt of 1 to 2 courses, with adjusted hazard ratios of 4.77 (95% CI: 2.13-10.68) versus 3.33 (95% CI: 1.69-6.58).

CONCLUSIONS:

Childhood antianaerobic antibiotic exposure is associated with IBD development.

PMID:
23008454
PMCID:
PMC4074626
DOI:
10.1542/peds.2011-3886
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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