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J Clin Oncol. 2012 Oct 20;30(30):3665-74. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2012.42.2097. Epub 2012 Sep 24.

Bone health in adult cancer survivorship.

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Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210-1240, USA.


Optimizing health outcomes, including prevention of osteoporotic fractures, is essential for promoting the well-being of the growing number of cancer survivors. Medical providers who participate in the care of cancer survivors should be aware that various cancer treatments may cause bone loss, which can increase the risk of subsequent of osteoporosis. Healthy bone remodeling is a balanced and dynamic equation between new bone formation and bone resorption. Aging, natural menopause, and cancer treatments such as surgical oophorectomy, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure, androgen deprivation therapy, and aromatase inhibitors can all promote bone loss. The WHO Fracture Assessment Tool can be used as a clinical aid to assess an individual's osteoporotic fracture risk, with or without bone mineral density measurements obtained from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Preventative strategies include adequate calcium and vitamin D supplementation and modifying risk factors such as alcohol intake, tobacco use, and lack of exercise. Bisphosphonate therapy and rank-ligand monoclonal antibody therapy are the most commonly used agents for management of bone loss resulting from cancer treatment. This review will summarize the mechanisms by which cancer treatments cause bone loss as well provide screening and treatment recommendations for the management of bone loss.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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