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Phys Rev Lett. 2012 Aug 17;109(7):076101. Epub 2012 Aug 13.

n-type doping of germanium from phosphine: early stages resolved at the atomic level.

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School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.


To understand the atomistic doping process of phosphorus in germanium, we present a combined scanning tunneling microscopy, temperature programed desorption, and density functional theory study of the reactions of phosphine with the Ge(001) surface. Combining experimental and theoretical results, we demonstrate that PH(2) + H with a footprint of one Ge dimer is the only product of room temperature chemisorption. Further dissociation requires thermal activation. At saturation coverage, PH(2) + H species self-assemble into ordered patterns leading to phosphorus coverages of up to 0.5 monolayers.

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