Send to

Choose Destination
J Anal Toxicol. 2012 Nov-Dec;36(9):647-56. doi: 10.1093/jat/bks078. Epub 2012 Sep 20.

Analysis of clothing and urine from Moscow theatre siege casualties reveals carfentanil and remifentanil use.

Author information

Detection Department, Defence Science and Technology Laboratory-Dstl, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JQ, UK.


On October 26, 2002, Russian Special Forces deployed a chemical aerosol against Chechen terrorists to rescue hostages in the Dubrovka theatre. Its use confirmed Russian military interest in chemicals with effects on personnel and caused 125 deaths through a combination of the aerosol and inadequate medical care. This study provides evidence from liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of extracts of clothing from two British survivors, and urine from a third survivor, that the aerosol comprised a mixture of two anaesthetics--carfentanil and remifentanil--whose relative proportions this study was unable to identify. Carfentanil and remifentanil were found on a shirt sample and a metabolite called norcarfentanil was found in a urine sample. This metabolite probably originated from carfentanil.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
Loading ...
Support Center