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J Med Microbiol. 2013 Jan;62(Pt 1):169-72. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.049569-0. Epub 2012 Sep 20.

Non-rheumatic streptococcal myocarditis - warm hands, warm heart.

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Infectious Diseases Unit, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia.


Acute myopericarditis in the developed world is ascribed predominantly to viral infections. Enteroviruses and adenoviruses are commonly implicated but are not routinely tested for, as the condition is self-limiting and has a good prognosis. However, we recently encountered two cases of acute myopericarditis associated with concomitant Streptococcus pyogenes [group A Streptococcus (GAS)] pharyngotonsillitis. A microbiological aetiology was pursued because of the severity of the upper respiratory tract infection and associated systemic illness rather than to explain the myopericarditis per se. We report these two cases and review the literature of this potentially under-recognized condition. In the absence of features of rheumatic fever, we hypothesize a toxin-mediated process as opposed to an immune-mediated one. We suggest that perhaps all patients with myopericarditis be assessed for GAS pharyngitis.

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