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Bone Marrow Transplant. 2013 Feb;48(2):226-32. doi: 10.1038/bmt.2012.140. Epub 2012 Sep 24.

Alternative donor SCT for the treatment of MHC class II deficiency.

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Department of Pediatrics, Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA.


MHC Class II deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by absent HLA Class II expression resulting in CD4 lymphopenia, lack of Ag-specific responses and recurrent infection. Without successful allogeneic SCT, most children succumb to infection within the first decade of life. To date, alternative donor transplants for this disorder have been inferior to SCT for other forms of combined immunodeficiency disease due to an increased incidence of graft rejection, GVHD and death from infections generally acquired before haematopoietic cell transplantation. This study details the transplant outcome of 16 affected children consecutively transplanted at four centers since 1990, 8 of whom required mechanical ventilation pretransplant. Stem cells were derived from an HLA-mismatched family member (n=10), an HLA-matched unrelated adult donor (n=4), or an unrelated cord blood donor (n=2). Graft failure occurred in five children, all of whom underwent a second SCT. Six patients developed acute GVHD although no patient developed chronic GVHD after primary transplantation. CD4 T-cell reconstitution remained below the normal range for age, suggesting defective thymopoiesis after allo-SCT. Nonetheless, 69% of children survive without GVHD at a median follow-up of 5.7 years, indicating improved outcomes compared with previous studies.

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