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Vaccine. 2012 Nov 6;30(48):6845-50. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.09.011. Epub 2012 Sep 18.

Avidity and subtyping of specific antibodies applied to the indirect assessment of heterologous protection against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in cattle.

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INTA, Instituto de Virología, Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias y Agronómicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.


Serological assessment of the heterologous response among Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) strains is mainly performed by virus neutralization test (VNT), liquid phase blocking ELISA and complement fixation assay. In this study two high-throughput ELISA techniques, avidity and IgG subtype ELISA, were developed and used to further characterize heterologous antibody responses in cattle during vaccination and challenge. Both assays were applied to a set of previously characterized sera from animals immunized with an inactivated A24 Cruzeiro/Brazil/55 (A24 Cruzeiro) strain monovalent FMDV vaccine and challenged with the heterologous A/Argentina/2001 (A/Arg/01) strain. Single dilution avidity ELISA assessment showed that animals that were protected against A/Arg/01 challenge had higher avidity antibodies to this heterologous strain than non-protected cattle. Animals with low or even undetectable anti-A/Arg/01 serum-neutralizing titers that passed the heterologous challenge presented higher IgG1/IgG2 ratio than non-protected animals. In this study, the three assessments (VNT and both ELISAs) discriminated between protected and not protected animals against a heterologous challenge. The combination of these techniques may be applied to complement current indirect serological vaccine-matching assessments. The measurement of these qualitative parameters may provide additional information to understand the mechanisms underlying FMD heterologous responses and the induction of cross-protection in cattle.

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