Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Immunity. 2012 Sep 21;37(3):399-411. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2012.08.013.

Intrinsic cellular defenses against human immunodeficiency viruses.

Author information

1
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Laboratory of Retrovirology, Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, The Rockefeller University 455 First Avenue New York, NY, 10016.
#
Contributed equally

Abstract

Viral infections are often detrimental to host survival and reproduction. Consequently, hosts have evolved a variety of mechanisms to defend themselves against viruses. A component of this arsenal is a set of proteins, termed restriction factors, which exhibit direct antiviral activity. Among these are several classes of proteins (APOBEC3, TRIM5, Tetherin, and SAMHD1) that inhibit the replication of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses. Here, we outline the features, mechanisms, and evolution of these defense mechanisms. We also speculate on how restriction factors arose, how they might interact with the conventional innate and adaptive immune systems, and how an understanding of these intrinsic cellular defenses might be usefully exploited.

PMID:
22999946
PMCID:
PMC3912573
DOI:
10.1016/j.immuni.2012.08.013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center