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Exp Ther Med. 2010 Mar;1(2):385-390. Epub 2010 Mar 1.

Genetic and epigenetic alterations of RIZ1 and the correlation to clinicopathological parameters in liver fluke-related cholangiocarcinoma.

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  • 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Graduate School ; Centre for Research and Development of Medical Diagnostic Laboratories, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, ; Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.


The retinoblastoma interacting zinc finger (RIZ1) gene is adjacent to D1S228 where microsatellite instability has been associated with poor patient survival in liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). An understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the carcinogenesis and pathogenesis of CCA is necessary to improve patient survival. Therefore, we determined the genetic and epigenetic alterations of RIZ1 in 81 CCA samples and 69 matched non-tumor tissues. Methylation was found in 31 of 81 (38%) tumor samples and in 5 of 69 (7%) matched non-tumor tissues. Frameshift mutations (2 of 81) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) (14 of 81) were not common. Statistical analysis found no significant correlation between RIZ1 alterations and clinicopathological features, but RIZPro704 LOH was associated with patient survival in the multivariate analysis. RIZ1 hypermethylation may be one of the crucial molecular events contributing to cholangiocarcinogenesis, and RIZPro704 LOH may adversely impact patient survival. The biological function of RIZ1 in CCA should be further investigated in order to verify its potential role in regulating this cancer.

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