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Skeletal Radiol. 2012 Dec;41(12):1495-507. doi: 10.1007/s00256-012-1510-6. Epub 2012 Sep 21.

Vascular bone tumors: a proposal of a classification based on clinicopathological, radiographic and genetic features.

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Ortopedia Generale, Orthopaedic Service, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Rizzoli-Sicilia, Bagheria, Italy.


The classification of vascular bone tumors remains challenging, with considerable morphological overlap spanning across benign to malignant categories. The vast majority of both benign and malignant vascular tumors are readily diagnosed based on their characteristic histological features, such as the formation of vascular spaces and the expression of endothelial markers. However, some vascular tumors have atypical histological features, such as a solid growth pattern, epithelioid change, or spindle cell morphology, which complicates their diagnosis. Pathologically, these tumors are remarkably similar, which makes differentiating them from each other very difficult. For this rare subset of vascular bone tumors, there remains considerable controversy with regard to the terminology and the classification that should be used. Moreover, one of the most confusing issues related to vascular bone tumors is the myriad of names that are used to describe them. Because the clinical behavior and, consequently, treatment and prognosis of vascular bone tumors can vary significantly, it is important to effectively and accurately distinguish them from each other. Upon review of the nomenclature and the characteristic clinicopathological, radiographic and genetic features of vascular bone tumors, we propose a classification scheme that includes hemangioma, hemangioendothelioma, angiosarcoma, and their epithelioid variants.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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