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J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013 Jan;68(1):40-5. doi: 10.1093/jac/dks365. Epub 2012 Sep 18.

Characterization of fluoroquinolone and cephalosporin resistance mechanisms in Enterobacteriaceae isolated in a Dutch teaching hospital reveals the presence of an Escherichia coli ST131 clone with a specific mutation in parE.

Author information

1
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands. s.paltansing@lumc.nl

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To characterize the mechanisms of fluoroquinolone and cephalosporin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae from a Dutch teaching hospital in 2008.

METHODS:

We sequenced gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE. The presence of plasmid-encoded genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib, qepA, bla(TEM), bla(SHV,) bla(OXA), bla(CTX-M) and bla(AmpC) was studied by PCR. Escherichia coli isolates were further characterized by AFLP and multilocus sequence typing (MLST).

RESULTS:

In total, 49 E. coli, 16 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 3 Enterobacter cloacae isolates were investigated. Mutations in gyrA were found in all E. coli isolates. Forty-five (92%) E. coli isolates carried at least one point mutation in parC. Most E. coli isolates (59%) also carried mutations in parE, of which I529L was the most prevalent. I529L was unequivocally associated with E. coli sequence type (ST) 131. This single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was later also found in eight out of nine ST131 strains from another collection. Twenty-nine E. coli isolates carried extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes, predominantly bla(CTX-M-15). In E. coli, aac(6')-Ib-cr was the predominant plasmid-mediated resistance mechanism, whereas in K. pneumoniae qnr genes were found mostly. In K. pneumoniae isolates, qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr co-occurred with ESBL genes (n = 13; bla(CTX-M) and bla(SHV)) and/or bla(AmpC) (n = 3; bla(DHA-1)).

CONCLUSIONS:

E. coli ST131 was the predominant clone, which accumulated a high number of chromosomal mutations. The I529L SNP in parE was a signature of most, but not all, ST131 strains. In contrast to E. coli, fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms were predominantly plasmid-encoded in K. pneumoniae.

PMID:
22991424
DOI:
10.1093/jac/dks365
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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