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Exp Brain Res. 2012 Nov;223(2):271-80. doi: 10.1007/s00221-012-3257-7. Epub 2012 Sep 19.

Chronological changes in inflammatory cytokines immunoreactivities in the mouse hippocampus after systemic administration of high dosage of tetanus toxin.

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Department of Neurobiology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, South Korea.


Tetanus toxin (TeT) is an exotoxin and has a capacity for neuronal binding and internalization. In the present study, we compared changes in the immunoreactivities and protein levels of interleukin (IL-) 2 as a pro-inflammatory cytokine and IL-4 as an anti-inflammatory cytokine in the hippocampus proper (HP) and dentate gyrus (DG) after systemic treatment of 10 or 100 ng/kg TeT into mice. In this study, we could not find any neuronal damage or loss in any subregions of the hippocampus after TeT treatment. In the control groups, strong IL-2 immunoreactivity was shown in the stratum pyramidal (SP) of the HP and in the granule cell layer (GCL) of the DG. At 6 h post-treatment, IL-2 immunoreactivity was hardly detected in the SP and GCL; however, strong IL-2 immunoreactivity was shown in the stratum oriens of the HP in both the groups. Thereafter, intermediate IL-2 immunoreactivity was shown in the SP and GCL. On the other hand, intermediate IL-4 immunoreactivity was detected in the SP and GCL of the control groups. At 6 h post-treatment, IL-4 immunoreactivity in the SP and GCL was apparently increased. Thereafter, IL-4 immunoreactivity was lower than that at 6 h post-treatment. In brief, IL-2 and 4 immunoreactivities were easily detected in SP and GCL in the controls and dramatically decreased and increased at 6 h post-treatment, respectively.

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