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Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Nov;96(5):1017-24. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.041947. Epub 2012 Sep 18.

Slowly and rapidly digestible starchy foods can elicit a similar glycemic response because of differential tissue glucose uptake in healthy men.

Author information

1
Center for Medical Biomics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Previously we observed that the consumption of pasta and bread resulted in a similar glycemic response, despite a slower intestinal influx rate of glucose from the pasta. Underlying mechanisms of this effect were not clear.

OBJECTIVE:

The objective was to investigate the differences in glucose kinetics and hormonal response after consumption of products with slow and rapid in vivo starch digestibility but with a similar glycemic response.

DESIGN:

Ten healthy male volunteers participated in a crossover study and consumed (13)C-enriched wheat bread or pasta while receiving a primed-continuous D-[6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose infusion. The dual-isotope technique enabled calculation of the following glucose kinetics: rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE), endogenous glucose production, and glucose clearance rate (GCR). In addition, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) were analyzed.

RESULTS:

GIP concentrations after pasta consumption were lower than after bread consumption and strongly correlated with the RaE (r = 0.82, P < 0.01). The insulin response was also lower after pasta consumption (P < 0.01). In accordance with the low insulin response, the GCR was lower after pasta consumption, which explained the high glycemic response despite a low RaE.

CONCLUSIONS:

Slower intestinal uptake of glucose from a starchy food product can result in lower postprandial insulin and GIP concentrations, but not necessarily in a lower glycemic response, because of a slower GCR. Even without being able to reduce postprandial glycemia, products with slowly digestible starch can have beneficial long-term effects. These types of starchy products cannot be identified by using the glycemic index and therefore another classification system may be necessary. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN42106325.

PMID:
22990033
DOI:
10.3945/ajcn.112.041947
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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