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Nurs Outlook. 2012 Nov-Dec;60(6):357-64. doi: 10.1016/j.outlook.2012.08.002. Epub 2012 Sep 14.

Pain and symptom management in palliative care and at end of life.

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  • 1Center of Excellence for End-of-Life Transition Research, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. diwilkie@uic.edu

Abstract

The purpose of this review is to provide a literature update of the research published since 2004 on pain and symptom management in palliative care and at end of life. Findings suggest that pain and symptoms are inadequately assessed and managed, even at the end of life. Although not pervasive, there is evidence of racial/ethnic disparities in symptom management in palliative care and at end of life. There is a need for a broader conceptualization and measurement of pain and symptom management as multidimensional experiences. There is insufficient evidence about mechanisms underlying pain at end of life. Although there are advances in the knowledge of pain as a multidimensional experience and the many symptoms that occur sometimes with pain, gaps remain. One approach to addressing the gaps will involve assessment and management of pain and symptoms as multidimensional experiences in people receiving palliative care and at end of life.

PMID:
22985972
PMCID:
PMC3505611
DOI:
10.1016/j.outlook.2012.08.002
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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