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Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012 Dec 15;265(3):368-72. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2012.09.005. Epub 2012 Sep 13.

Chemopreventive activity of compounds extracted from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) Sw against DNA damage induced by particulate matter emitted by sugarcane burning near Araraquara, Brazil.

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UNESP-Univ. Estadual Paulista, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Clinical Analysis, Rua Expedicion√°rios do Brasil, 1621 Araraquara, Brazil.


Ethanolic extract of Casearia sylvestris is thought to be antimutagenic. In this study, we attempted to determine whether this extract and casearin X (a clerodane diterpene from C. sylvestris) are protective against the harmful effects of airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. To that end, we used the Tradescantia micronucleus test in meiotic pollen cells of Tradescantia pallida, the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells, and the comet assay in mouse blood cells. The mutagenic compound was total suspended particulate (TSP) from air. For the Tradescantia micronucleus test, T. pallida cuttings were treated with the extract at 0.13, 0.25, or 0.50 mg/ml. Subsequently, TSP was added at 0.3mg/ml, and tetrads from the inflorescences were examined for micronuclei. For the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells and the comet assay in mouse blood cells, Balb/c mice were treated for 15 days with the extract-3.9, 7.5, or 15.0 mg/kg body weight (BW)-or with casearin X-0.3, 0.25, or 1.2 mg/kg BW-after which they received TSP (3.75 mg/kg BW). In T. pallida and mouse bone marrow cells, the extract was antimutagenic at all concentrations tested. In mouse blood cells, the extract was antigenotoxic at all concentrations, whereas casearin X was not antimutagenic but was antigenotoxic at all concentrations. We conclude that C. sylvestris ethanolic extract and casearin X protect DNA from damage induced by airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning.

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