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J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Oct 9;60(15):1352-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2012.05.042. Epub 2012 Sep 12.

Pilot trial of cryoplasty or conventional balloon post-dilation of nitinol stents for revascularization of peripheral arterial segments: the COBRA trial.

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University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.



The purpose of this study is to compare post-dilation strategies of nitinol self-expanding stents implanted in the superficial femoral artery of diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease.


Endovascular treatment of superficial femoral artery disease with nitinol self-expanding stents is associated with high rates of in-stent restenosis in patients with diabetes mellitus.


We conducted a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial of diabetic patients to investigate whether post-dilation of superficial femoral artery nitinol self-expanding stents using a cryoplasty balloon reduces restenosis compared to a conventional balloon. Inclusion criteria included diabetes mellitus, symptomatic peripheral arterial disease, and superficial femoral artery lesions requiring implantation of stents>5 mm in diameter and >60 mm in length. Primary endpoint was binary restenosis at 12 months, defined as ≥2.5-fold increase in peak systolic velocity by duplex ultrasonography.


Seventy-four patients, with 90 stented superficial femoral artery lesions, were randomly assigned to post-dilation using cryoplasty (n=45 lesions) or conventional balloons (n=45 lesions). Mean lesion length was 148±98 mm, mean stented length was 190±116 mm, mean stent diameter was 6.1±0.4 mm, and 50% of the lesions were total occlusions. Post-dilation balloon diameters were 5.23±0.51 mm versus 5.51±0.72 mm in the cryoplasty and conventional balloon angioplasty groups, respectively (p=0.02). At 12 months, binary restenosis was significantly lower in the cryoplasty group (29.3% vs. 55.8%, p=0.01; odds ratio: 0.36, 95% confidence interval: 0.15 to 0.89).


Among diabetic patients undergoing implantation of nitinol self-expanding stents in the superficial femoral artery, post-dilation with cryoplasty balloon reduced binary restenosis compared to conventional balloon angioplasty. (Study Comparing Two Methods of Expanding Stents Placed in Legs of Diabetics With Peripheral Vascular Disease [COBRA]; NCT00827853).

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