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J Subst Abuse Treat. 2013 Feb;44(2):241-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2012.07.004. Epub 2012 Sep 12.

Opioid overdose prevention with intranasal naloxone among people who take methadone.

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Boston University School of Medicine, Clinical Addiction Research Education Unit, Section of General Internal Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA.


Overdose education and naloxone distribution (OEND) is an intervention that addresses overdose, but has not been studied among people who take methadone, a drug involved in increasing numbers of overdoses. This study describes the implementation of OEND among people taking methadone in the previous 30 days in various settings in Massachusetts. From 2008 to 2010, 1553 participants received OEND who had taken methadone in the past 30 days. Settings included inpatient detoxification (47%), HIV prevention programs (25%), methadone maintenance treatment programs (MMTP) (17%), and other settings (11%). Previous overdose, recent inpatient detoxification and incarceration, and polysubstance use were overdose risks factors common among all groups. Participants reported 92 overdose rescues. OEND programs are public health interventions that address overdose risk among people who take methadone and their social networks. OEND programs can be implemented in MMTPs, detoxification programs, and HIV prevention programs.

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