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J Assist Reprod Genet. 2012 Nov;29(11):1227-39. doi: 10.1007/s10815-012-9861-4. Epub 2012 Sep 14.

Assessment and treatment of repeated implantation failure (RIF).

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, In Vitro Fertilization Unit, Ein Kerem, Hebrew University, Hadassah Medical Center, POB 12000, Jerusalem, 91120, Israel.


Repeated implantation failure (RIF) is determined when embryos of good quality fail to implant following several in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment cycles. Implantation failure is related to either maternal factors or embryonic causes. Maternal factors include uterine anatomic abnormalities, thrombophilia, non-receptive endometrium and immunological factors. Failure of implantation due to embryonic causes is associated with either genetic abnormalities or other factors intrinsic to the embryo that impair its ability to develop in utero, to hatch and to implant. New methods of time-lapse imaging of embryos and assessment of their metabolic functions may improve selection of embryos for transfer, and subsequent outcomes for IVF patients, as well as for those diagnosed with RIF. This review discusses the various causes associated with RIF and addresses appropriate treatments.

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