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J Thromb Haemost. 2012 Nov;10(11):2223-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1538-7836.2012.04923.x.

The evolution and value of bleeding assessment tools.

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Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada.


A personal history of excessive mucocutaneous bleeding is a key component in the diagnosis of a number of mild bleeding disorders, including von Willebrand disease (VWD), platelet function disorders (PFD), and coagulation factor deficiencies. However, the evaluation of hemorrhagic symptoms is a well-recognized challenge for both patients and physicians, because the reporting and interpretation of bleeding symptoms is subjective. As a result, bleeding assessment tools (BATs) have been developed and studied in a variety of clinical settings. This work has been pioneered by a group of Italian researchers, and the resultant 'Vicenza Bleeding Questionnaire' stands as the original BAT. In this review, we will discuss the modifications of the Vicenza Bleeding Questionnaire that have taken place over the years, as well as the validation studies that have been published. Other BATs that have been developed and published will be reviewed, as will the special situations of assessing pediatric bleeding as well as menorrhagia. Lastly, the clinical utility of BATs will be discussed including remaining challenges and future directions for the field.


bleeding scores; bruising; epistaxis; menorrhagia; mucocutaneous bleeding; platelet function disorder; von Willebrand disease

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