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PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e44700. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044700. Epub 2012 Sep 7.

Transcriptome analysis of a rotenone model of parkinsonism reveals complex I-tied and -untied toxicity mechanisms common to neurodegenerative diseases.

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1
Department of Pathology and Environmental Health Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine and School of Public Health, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America. yofrecabeza@gmail.com

Abstract

The pesticide rotenone, a neurotoxin that inhibits the mitochondrial complex I, and destabilizes microtubules (MT) has been linked to Parkinson disease (PD) etiology and is often used to model this neurodegenerative disease (ND). Many of the mechanisms of action of rotenone are posited mechanisms of neurodegeneration; however, they are not fully understood. Therefore, the study of rotenone-affected functional pathways is pertinent to the understanding of NDs pathogenesis. This report describes the transcriptome analysis of a neuroblastoma (NB) cell line chronically exposed to marginally toxic and moderately toxic doses of rotenone. The results revealed a complex pleiotropic response to rotenone that impacts a variety of cellular events, including cell cycle, DNA damage response, proliferation, differentiation, senescence and cell death, which could lead to survival or neurodegeneration depending on the dose and time of exposure and cell phenotype. The response encompasses an array of physiological pathways, modulated by transcriptional and epigenetic regulatory networks, likely activated by homeostatic alterations. Pathways that incorporate the contribution of MT destabilization to rotenone toxicity are suggested to explain complex I-independent rotenone-induced alterations of metabolism and redox homeostasis. The postulated mechanisms involve the blockage of mitochondrial voltage-dependent anions channels (VDACs) by tubulin, which coupled with other rotenone-induced organelle dysfunctions may underlie many presumed neurodegeneration mechanisms associated with pathophysiological aspects of various NDs including PD, AD and their variant forms. Thus, further investigation of such pathways may help identify novel therapeutic paths for these NDs.

PMID:
22970289
PMCID:
PMC3436760
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0044700
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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