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PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e44626. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044626. Epub 2012 Sep 7.

A diagnostic accuracy study of Xpert®MTB/RIF in HIV-positive patients with high clinical suspicion of pulmonary tuberculosis in Lima, Peru.

Author information

1
Facultad de Medicina Alberto Hurtado, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru. gabriela.carriquiry.c@upch.pe

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients remains complex and demands easy to perform and accurate tests. Xpert®MTB/RIF (MTB/RIF) is a molecular TB diagnostic test which is rapid and convenient; the test requires minimal human resources and reports results within two hours. The majority of performance studies of MTB/RIF have been performed in high HIV burden settings, thus TB diagnostic studies among HIV patients in low HIV prevalence settings such as Peru are still needed.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:

From April 2010 to May 2011, HIV-positive patients with high clinical suspicion of TB were enrolled from two tertiary hospitals in Lima, Peru. Detection of TB by MTB/RIF was compared to a composite reference standard Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) and liquid culture. Detection of rifampicin resistance was compared to the LJ proportion method. We included 131 patients, the median CD4 cell count was 154.5 cells/mm(3) and 45 (34.4%) had TB. For TB detection among HIV patients, sensitivity of MTB/RIF was 97.8% (95% CI 88.4-99.6) (44/45); specificity was 97.7% (95% CI 91.9-99.4) (84/86); the positive predictive value was 95.7% (95% CI 85.5-98.8) (44/46); and the negative predictive value, 98.8% (95% CI 93.6-99.8) (84/85). MTB/RIF detected 13/14 smear-negative TB cases, outperforming smear microscopy [97.8% (44/45) vs. 68.9% (31/45); p = 0.0002]. For rifampicin resistance detection, sensitivity of MTB/RIF was 100% (95% CI 61.0-100.0) (6/6); specificity was 91.0% (95% CI 76.4-96.9) (30/33); the positive predictive value was 66.7% (95% CI 35.4-87.9) (6/9); and the negative predictive value was 100% (95% CI 88.7 -100.0) (30/30).

CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:

In HIV patients in our population with a high clinical suspicion of TB, MTB/RIF performed well for TB diagnosis and outperformed smear microscopy.

PMID:
22970271
PMCID:
PMC3436871
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0044626
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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