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Sensors (Basel). 2012;12(6):6953-66. doi: 10.3390/s120606953. Epub 2012 May 25.

Sensoring fusion data from the optic and acoustic emissions of electric arcs in the GMAW-S process for welding quality assessment.

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University of Brasilia, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical, Mechatronic Engineering, Campus Universitario Darcy Ribeiro, Brasilia/DF, Brazil.


The present study shows the relationship between welding quality and optical-acoustic emissions from electric arcs, during welding runs, in the GMAW-S process. Bead on plate welding tests was carried out with pre-set parameters chosen from manufacturing standards. During the welding runs interferences were induced on the welding path using paint, grease or gas faults. In each welding run arc voltage, welding current, infrared and acoustic emission values were acquired and parameters such as arc power, acoustic peaks rate and infrared radiation rate computed. Data fusion algorithms were developed by assessing known welding quality parameters from arc emissions. These algorithms have showed better responses when they are based on more than just one sensor. Finally, it was concluded that there is a close relation between arc emissions and quality in welding and it can be measured from arc emissions sensing and data fusion algorithms.


GMAW-S; arc emissions; data fusion; quality

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